With an estimated 790,000 HIV positive people and nearly one million AIDS orphans Ethiopia is one of the countries most affected by the HIV epidemic. Despite this, HIV prevalence among the adult population is lower than many sub-Saharan African countries. Adult HIV prevalence in 2011 according to the Ethiopian Demographic Survey was estimated to be 1.5% (1.9% in females compared to 1.0% in males). Women continue to bear the brunt of the epidemic with females accounting for 60% of the population of people living with HIV in the country in 2011. In addition children under 15 years are also heavily affected and account for over 20% of people living with HIV in 2011.
Ethiopia’s HIV epidemic continues to be generalized and heterogeneous with marked regional variations. HIV prevalence ranges from 0.9% in Southern Ethiopia (SNNPR) to 6.5% in Gambella region in the Western part of the country. There is also wide urban rural variation in HIV prevalence with urban areas estimated to have a prevalence of 4.2% compared to 0.6% in rural areas. At the national level, the epidemiologic trend over the past eight years has been stable. However, HIV prevalence appears to be declining in both urban and rural areas, according to analysis of data from ante-natal sites that collected data consistently for more than ten years. For example overall HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics has declined from 4.9% in 2001 to 2.6% in 2009. Periurban and small market town residents, young females, serodiscordant couples, sex workers, uniformed services and long distance truck drivers are the most at risk individuals and affected segments of the population by the epidemic.
According to the 2012 UNAIDS Report on the HIV epidemic, there were 333,434 people (249,174 adults and 16,000 children) on antiretroviral treatment at the end of 2011. This represents 86% coverage of adults in need of treatment and 20% in children.
 FHAPCO/UNAIDS EPP Spectrum HIV estimates
 Ethiopian Demographic Survey 2011
 The Ethiopia 2012 Global AIDS progress report